Professor Nosek was in the news again last week. He has coordinated a huge study, The Reproducibility Project, in experimental psychology to see how many results published in three leading peer-reviewed psychology journals could be replicated. If you can get your stuff published in Psychological Science, or Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, or Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, then you'll be very happy: their impact factors are in the top half for the field as well. It's basically a huge scaling up of what Nosek put his own people through two years ago. The meta-result is a worrying exposure of how much utter tosh gets past the researchers themselves, an editor, and two or three peer reviewers. It suggests that scientists are no less credulous and prone to wishful thinking than shop-assistants, architects or footballers.
What they did [actual Science paper] was take 100 psychology studies published in those three leading journals in 2008. They being Nosek and 269 (!) co-authors who agreed to critically re-evaluate the results by attempting to replicate the earlier work. A key part of any scientific paper is the section Materials and Methods which should ideally give enough information about who did what to whom, so that anyone can see if they can obtain the same result by following exactly the same protocol. Science is littered with me-too studies which re-do a successful study . . . with boys rather than girls; rich people rather than poor; testing for religious rather than political bias. That subtle change makes The Effectives think they're doing something novel. But then you can never be sure if any discrepancy in the result is due to the newly introduced variable or if the original study was suspect.
97/100 of the original papers found something significant about how people tick [people being a subset of the world whose ticking is what interests science]. Such important issues [titles follow] as <read/scan the list, there are points about it which are followed up afterwards>:
- Power, distress, and compassion: turning a blind eye to the suffering of others.
- Powerful people make good decisions even when they consciously think
- Gender recognition of human faces using color
- With a clean conscience: cleanliness reduces the severity of moral judgments [which we found last year was probably or 50:50 nonsense]
- Contextualizing change in marital satisfaction during middle age: an 18-year longitudinal study.
- The case of the transmogrifying experimenter: affirmation of a moral schema following implicit change detection [wtf can that be about? probably nonsense aNNyway]
John Ioannidis, whose 2005 PLOS Medicine paper Why most published research findings are false put the cat among the pigeons, identifies a worrying mathematical likelihood in Nosek's finding: If the replication rate is so poor in the top journals what can it be down among the grass of the publication jungle? Because we all know that if you have several hundred $$$ for 'page-charges' you can get any old nonsense published somewhere. Possibly in the journal that recently sent you an unsolicited e-mail beginning "Esteemed Professor". Another issue is that the 100 2008 studies were chosen because they could be replicated easily: the original authors were prepared to share their data and protocols, the Mat&Meth were clear and it wasn't an 18 year longitudinal study. More involved/complex/time-consuming previous studies aren't going to be more reproducible are they?
There is no place for other scientific disciplines being smug and saying that psychological research is a contradiction in terms and who gives a damn anyway? Let's look at our own practice v e r y c a r e f u l l y before we start slagging off other people.
As ever, The Atlantic covers the story with clarity and sense. And hats off to Brian Nosek who managed to herd a lot of cats in a useful direction.
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